permaculture About | European Permaculture Teachers Partnership

http://permateachers.eu/about-2/
About
The European Permaculture Teachers’ Partnership (short: ‘EPT’, European PC Teachers) has 12 official Partnership organisations funded by the EU-programme Leonardo DaVinci and several non-funded Partner organisations all over Europe – the number is growing. Currently, more than 150 people are connected through this partnership.

*On the following pages you will find:*

- The *Visitor’s Guide
*, which gives an overview of what the EPT wants to achieve plus the content of the Leonardo DaVinci application that has been submitted in January 2012 and which has been approved by the National Agencies of 12 European countries.
- An overview of the Partnership organisations and other partners under *Who:
People & Organisations*
plus some *faces *! – An overview of the* Partnership meetings
* and the topics that we worked on, plus posts that relate to these meetings. – An *Author’s Guide*
for those who submit texts to this website.
- The *Colophon* (overview of the editors, administrators, banner image contributors and creative commons license).

*Getting in touch:*

For questions on the EPT-Partnership or if you want to contribute to this online-resource, please contact us !

Newsletter Archive
1st EPT Newsletter Oct 2013
2nd EPT Newsletter Dec 2013
3rd EPT Newsletter Feb 2014
4th EPT Newsletter May 2014
Quick Start Guide The About section gives information on the goals
and activities of the partnership and the countries involved. The Teacher’s Manual
is a work-in-progress where we are collecting materials to help and inspire teachers. Current Events The latest news is found on the front page . Subscribe to our RSS feed to get the latest in your newsreader or RSS capable email programme.

EPT Partners

- Aardwerk, Nederland
- Accademia Italiana di Permacultura, Italy – Associacion Cambium Permacultura en Formacion, Spain

- Cultivate, Ireland
- Društvo za permakulturo Slovenije, Slovenia

- Elävän Kulttuurin Koroinen-yhdistys, Finland – Green School Village, Bulgaria – l’Université Populaire de Permaculture, France

- Latvian Permaculture Association, Latvia

- Permaculture Association, Britain – Permaculture Association, Sweden – Permakultur Danmark, Denmark – Permakultur Institut e.V., Germany – Projecto Novas Descobertas, Portugal

European Permaculture

- Chaordic Permaculture Institute

- EUPC2012
- Permaculture Council for Europe

Recent Posts

- Rakesh Rootsman – Community Building with Playback Theatre
- Permaculture Courses Formats

- The Permaculture College of Europe
- Federation or Foundation, Society or Cooperative?

Recent Comments

- Sandra Campe on Networking Garden
- Leo Bakx on An Exercise: Patterns
- Graham Bell on An Exercise: Patterns
- Graham Bell on An Exercise: Patterns
- Leo Bakx on An Exercise: Patterns

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permaculture European Permaculture Teachers Partnership | Teaching Permaculture in Europe: Sustainable Ways of Sharing Knowledge

European Permaculture Teachers Partnership | Teaching Permaculture in Europe: Sustainable Ways of Sharing Knowledge
http://permateachers.eu/

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permaculture Introduction | European Permaculture Teachers Partnership

http://permateachers.eu/introduction/

Introduction
*“Educational Structures” refers to:*

… capturing existing and emerging support structures in Permaculture education and teachers’ training in the different European countries, such as:

- Introductory courses and workshops
- Basic permaculture courses
- Diploma pathways
- Advanced courses
- Integral & comprehensive courses
- Teachers’ register
- Tutor & senior tutor register
- Apprenticeships & internships

*The objectives of the Educational Structures group are:*

- To share information about various national permaculture education systems and qualifications frameworks;
- To establish a pan-European network of permaculture teachers and organisations;
- To mutually support the national organisations to form networks to set up or improve their educational systems and structures;
- To support in developing organisational structures and working practices for less well set-up countries.

In this section you will find:

- Presentations of national educational structures;
- Different pathways towards the diploma
in applied permaculture design;
- Links towards global directories of projects, courses and people; – The results of a questionnaire with the number of courses organised in Europe in 2012
;
- SWOC (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Constraints) analysis of educational structures in Europe;
- [Coming Soon] A table with links towards European permaculture organisations, with information about diploma pathways, diploma holders, permaculture design courses, introduction courses and specialised courses; – A document with interactions between elements of educational structures that you can use and play with to improve your organisation; – The results of interviews made in May 2014
in Denmark that show the evolution of national permaculture organisations.

Newsletter Archive
1st EPT Newsletter Oct 2013
2nd EPT Newsletter Dec 2013
3rd EPT Newsletter Feb 2014
4th EPT Newsletter May 2014
Quick Start Guide The About section gives information on the goals
and activities of the partnership and the countries involved. The Teacher’s Manual
is a work-in-progress where we are collecting materials to help and inspire teachers. Current Events The latest news is found on the front page . Subscribe to our RSS feed to get the latest in your newsreader or RSS capable email programme.

EPT Partners

- Aardwerk, Nederland
- Accademia Italiana di Permacultura, Italy – Associacion Cambium Permacultura en Formacion, Spain

- Cultivate, Ireland
- Društvo za permakulturo Slovenije, Slovenia

- Elävän Kulttuurin Koroinen-yhdistys, Finland – Green School Village, Bulgaria – l’Université Populaire de Permaculture, France

- Latvian Permaculture Association, Latvia

- Permaculture Association, Britain – Permaculture Association, Sweden – Permakultur Danmark, Denmark – Permakultur Institut e.V., Germany – Projecto Novas Descobertas, Portugal

European Permaculture

- Chaordic Permaculture Institute

- EUPC2012
- Permaculture Council for Europe

Recent Posts

- Rakesh Rootsman – Community Building with Playback Theatre
- Permaculture Courses Formats

- The Permaculture College of Europe
- Federation or Foundation, Society or Cooperative?

Recent Comments

- Sandra Campe on Networking Garden
- Leo Bakx on An Exercise: Patterns
- Graham Bell on An Exercise: Patterns
- Graham Bell on An Exercise: Patterns
- Leo Bakx on An Exercise: Patterns

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permaculture Steam from the sun | MIT News Office – New spongelike structure converts solar energy into steam.

http://newsoffice.mit.edu/2014/new-spongelike-structure-converts-solar-energy-into-steam-0721

Steam from the sun

New spongelike structure converts solar energy into steam.

Jennifer Chu | MIT News Office
July 21, 2014
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A new material structure developed at MIT generates steam by soaking up the sun.

The structure — a layer of graphite flakes and an underlying carbon foam — is a porous, insulating material structure that floats on water. When sunlight hits the structure’s surface, it creates a hotspot in the graphite, drawing water up through the material’s pores, where it evaporates as steam. The brighter the light, the more steam is generated.

The new material is able to convert 85 percent of incoming solar energy into steam — a significant improvement over recent approaches to solar-powered steam generation. What’s more, the setup loses very little heat in the process, and can produce steam at relatively low solar intensity. This would mean that, if scaled up, the setup would likely not require complex, costly systems to highly concentrate sunlight.

Hadi Ghasemi, a postdoc in MIT’s Department of Mechanical Engineering, says the spongelike structure can be made from relatively inexpensive materials — a particular advantage for a variety of compact, steam-powered applications.

“Steam is important for desalination, hygiene systems, and sterilization,” says Ghasemi, who led the development of the structure. “Especially in remote areas where the sun is the only source of energy, if you can generate steam with solar energy, it would be very useful.”

Ghasemi and mechanical engineering department head Gang Chen, along with five others at MIT, report on the details of the new steam-generating structure in the journal *Nature Communications*.

*Cutting the optical concentration*

Today, solar-powered steam generation involves vast fields of mirrors or lenses that concentrate incoming sunlight, heating large volumes of liquid to high enough temperatures to produce steam. However, these complex systems can experience significant heat loss, leading to inefficient steam generation.

Recently, scientists have explored ways to improve the efficiency of solar-thermal harvesting by developing new solar receivers and by working with nanofluids. The latter approach involves mixing water with nanoparticles that heat up quickly when exposed to sunlight, vaporizing the surrounding water molecules as steam. But initiating this reaction requires very intense solar energy — about 1,000 times that of an average sunny day.

By contrast, the MIT approach generates steam at a solar intensity about 10 times that of a sunny day — the lowest optical concentration reported thus far. The implication, the researchers say, is that steam-generating applications can function with lower sunlight concentration and less-expensive tracking systems.

“This is a huge advantage in cost-reduction,” Ghasemi says. “That’s exciting for us because we’ve come up with a new approach to solar steam generation.”

*From sun to steam*

The approach itself is relatively simple: Since steam is generated at the surface of a liquid, Ghasemi looked for a material that could both efficiently absorb sunlight and generate steam at a liquid’s surface.

After trials with multiple materials, he settled on a thin, double-layered, disc-shaped structure. Its top layer is made from graphite that the researchers exfoliated by placing the material in a microwave. The effect, Chen says, is “just like popcorn”: The graphite bubbles up, forming a nest of flakes. The result is a highly porous material that can better absorb and retain solar energy.

The structure’s bottom layer is a carbon foam that contains pockets of air to keep the foam afloat and act as an insulator, preventing heat from escaping to the underlying liquid. The foam also contains very small pores that allow water to creep up through the structure via capillary action.

As sunlight hits the structure, it creates a hotspot in the graphite layer, generating a pressure gradient that draws water up through the carbon foam. As water seeps into the graphite layer, the heat concentrated in the graphite turns the water into steam. The structure works much like a sponge that, when placed in water on a hot, sunny day, can continuously absorb and evaporate liquid.

The researchers tested the structure by placing it in a chamber of water and exposing it to a solar simulator — a light source that simulates various intensities of solar radiation. They found they were able to convert 85 percent of solar energy into steam at a solar intensity 10 times that of a typical sunny day.

Ghasemi says the structure may be designed to be even more efficient, depending on the type of materials used.

“There can be different combinations of materials that can be used in these two layers that can lead to higher efficiencies at lower concentrations,” Ghasemi says. “There is still a lot of research that can be done on implementing this in larger systems.”

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permaculture California couple conserving water amid drought could face fine for brown lawn | Reuters

California couple conserving water amid drought could face fine for brown lawn
http://www.reuters.com/article/2014/07/17/us-usa-california-drought-idUSKBN0FM2OA20140717

(Reuters) – A Southern California couple who scaled back watering their lawn amid the state’s drought received a warning from the suburb where they live that they might be fined for creating an eyesore – despite emergency statewide orders to conserve.

Michael Korte and Laura Whitney, who live near Los Angeles in Glendora, said on Thursday they received a letter from the city warning they had 60 days to green up their partially brown lawn or pay a fine ranging from $100 to $500.

“I don’t think it’s right for us to start pouring water into our lawn in the middle of July during a drought,” said Whitney. “We’re kind of in a quandary about what to do.”

The letter, bearing the official symbols of Glendora and its police department, came the same week that statewide water regulators passed emergency drought restrictions for outdoor water use. Those regulations, to take effect this August, require cities to demand cutbacks in water use, and empower them to fine residents up to $500 for overwatering their lawns.

California is in the third year of an extreme drought that is expected to cost the state an estimated $2.2 billion and more than 17,000 agricultural jobs. Democratic Governor Jerry Brown declared a drought emergency in January.

In Glendora, City Manager Chris Jeffers said the city did encourage conservation, but that Korte’s and Whitney’s lawn was in such bad shape that it was reported as possibly abandoned.

“We were responding to a complaint that we received of a possible abandoned property,” Jeffers said. “Crews visited and determined it was not abandoned, but not kept. The landscape was dead and there were large areas of just dirt.”

Instead of citing the couple, he said, officials opted to leave a letter explaining that conserving water did not mean abandoning the landscape.

“Conservation does not mean neighborhoods need to deteriorate because property owners want (the) landscape to die or go unmaintained,” he said.

Glendora’s action provoked a strong response from state environmental officials, who said such moves undermined conservation efforts.

“Throughout the state, Californians are making serious efforts every day to cut their water use during this extreme drought,” said Amy Norris, spokeswoman for the California Environmental Protection Agency. “These efforts to conserve should not be undermined by the short-sighted actions of a few local jurisdictions, who chose to ignore the statewide crisis we face.”

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permaculture Fwd: California Halts Injection of Fracking Waste, Warning it May Be Contaminating Aquifers – ProPublica

California Halts Injection of Fracking Waste, Warning it May Be Contaminating Aquifers
State’s drought has forced farmers to rely on groundwater, even as California aquifers have been intentionally polluted due to exemptions for oil industry.

http://www.propublica.org/article/ca-halts-injection-fracking-waste-warning-may-be-contaminating-aquifers

California officials have ordered an emergency shut-down of 11 oil and gas waste injection sites and a review more than 100 others in the state’s drought-wracked Central Valley out of fear that companies may have been pumping fracking fluids and other toxic waste into drinking water aquifers there.
The state’s Division of Oil and Gas and Geothermal Resources on July 7 issued cease and desist orders to seven energy companies warning that they may be injecting their waste into aquifers that could be a source of drinking water, and stating that their waste disposal “poses danger to life, health, property, and natural resources.” The orders were first reported by the Bakersfield Californian, and the state has confirmed with ProPublica that its investigation is expanding to look at additional wells. The action comes as California’s agriculture industry copes with a drought crisis that has emptied reservoirs and cost the state $2.2 billion this year alone. The lack of water has forced farmers across the state to supplement their water supply from underground aquifers, according to a study released this week by the University of California Davis. The problem is that at least 100 of the state’s aquifers were presumed to be useless for drinking and farming because the water was either of poor quality, or too deep underground to easily access. Years ago, the state exempted them from environmental protection and allowed the oil and gas industry to intentionally pollute them. But not all aquifers are exempted, and the system amounts to a patchwork of protected and unprotected water resources deep underground. Now, according to the cease and desist orders issued by the state, it appears that at least seven injection wells are likely pumping waste into fresh water aquifers protected by the law, and not other aquifers sacrificed by the state long ago.
“The aquifers in question with respect to the orders that have been issued are not exempt,” said Ed Wilson, a spokesperson for the California Department of Conservation in an email.
A 2012 ProPublica investigation of more than 700,000 injection wells across the country found that wells were often poorly regulated and experienced high rates of failure, outcomes that were likely polluting underground water supplies that are supposed to be protected by federal law. That investigation also disclosed a little-known program overseen by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency that exempted more than 1,000 other drinking water aquifers from any sort of pollution protection at all, many of them in California.
Those are the aquifers at issue today. The exempted aquifers, according to documents the state filed with the U.S. EPA in 1981 and obtained by ProPublica, were poorly defined and ambiguously outlined. They were often identified by hand-drawn lines on a map, making it difficult to know today exactly which bodies of water were supposed to be protected, and by which aspects of the governing laws. Those exemptions and documents were signed by California Gov. Jerry Brown, who also was governor in 1981. State officials emphasized to ProPublica that they will now order water testing and monitoring at the injection well sites in question. To date, they said, they have not yet found any of the more regulated aquifers to have been contaminated.
“We do not have any direct evidence any drinking water has been affected,” wrote Steve Bohlen, the state oil and gas supervisor, in a statement to ProPublica.
Bohlen said his office was acting “out of an abundance of caution,” and a spokesperson said that the state became aware of the problems through a review of facilities it was conducting according to California’s fracking law passed late last year, which required the state to study fracking impacts and adopt regulations to address its risks, presumably including underground disposal.
California officials have long been under fire for their injection well practices, a waste disposal program that the state runs according to federal law and under a sort of license — called “primacy” — given to it by the EPA.
For one, experts say that aquifers the states and the EPA once thought would never be needed may soon become important sources of water as the climate changes and technology reduces the cost of pumping it from deep underground and treating it for consumption. Indeed, towns in Wyoming and Texas — two states also suffering long-term droughts — are pumping, treating, then delivering drinking water to taps from aquifers which would be considered unusable under California state regulations governing the oil and gas industry.
In June 2011, the EPA conducted a review of other aspects of California’s injection well program and found enforcement, testing and oversight problems so significant that the agency demanded California improve its regulations and warned that the state’s authority could be revoked. Among the issues, California and the federal government disagree about what type of water is worth protecting in the first place, with California law only protecting a fraction of the waters that the federal Safe Drinking Water Act requires.
The EPA’s report, commissioned from outside consultants, also said that California regulators routinely failed to adequately examine the geology around an injection well to ensure that fluids pumped into it would not leak underground and contaminate drinking water aquifers. The report found that state inspectors often allowed injection at pressures that exceeded the capabilities of the wells and thus risked cracking the surrounding rock and spreading contaminants. Several accidents in recent years in California involved injected waste or injected steam leaking back out of abandoned wells, or blowing out of the ground and creating sinkholes, including one 2011 incident that killed an oil worker.
The exemptions and other failings, said Damon Nagami, a senior attorney with the Natural Resources Defense Council in an email, are “especially disturbing” in a state that has been keenly aware of severe water constraints for more than a century and is now suffering from a crippling drought. “Our drinking water sources must be protected and preserved for the precious resources they are, not sacrificed as a garbage dump for the oil and gas industry.”
Still, three years after the EPA’s report, California has not yet completed its review of its underground injection program, according to state officials. The scrutiny of the wells surrounding Bakersfield may be the start.

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permaculture Costa Rica Permaculture Design Courses

Hi Koreen n Scott et al..great to see this collaboration. Perhaps its now obvious to join forces and develop a stronger PCR…Steve

On 18 July 2014 21:25, Koreen Brennan via permaculture <
permaculture@lists.ibiblio.org> wrote:

> In order to honor Scott Pittman’s long running Costa Rica Permaculture > Design Course in January, which we were unaware of when we booked our > course on the exact same day (!) we moved our course to April, 2015. From > my knowledge of Scott as a teacher, and from the feedback I’ve gotten from > his many students, I’m sure his course in January will be amazing and life > changing. He offers quite an experience with his design courses. Check it > out if you have not done so yet: http://www.permaculture.org .
>
> Koreen Brennan
>
>
> http://www.growpermaculture.com
> http://www.facebook.com/growpermaculturenow
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> site: lists.ibiblio.org/pipermail/permaculture [searchstring] > Permaculture Institute USA http://permaculture.org
> How to permaculture your urban lifestyle
> http://www.ipermie.net
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> https://plus.google.com/+Avantgeared
> Permaculture: — portal to an expanding global network of landtech > pioneers — who are designing ecological land use systems with integrated > elements for synergy, sustainability, regeneration and enhanced > nature-compatible human habitat
>

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