Gardening Hand Tool Sourcelist & Raised Garden Bed Preparation

-
June 4, 2010 Revision 
Gardening Hand Tool Sourcelist

http://www.ibiblio.org/ecolandtech/documents/gardening-hand-tools.faq

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Farm & Garden Hand Tool Sourcelist
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Permanent No-Till Biointensive Double-Dug Garden Preparation & Handtool Information & Sourcelist

(work-in-progress - updated frequently)

One approach is investing in a lot of time, tillage and materials up front, 
inverting the soil, fragmenting its crumb structure, with
associated temporary disruption of soil life and soil structure,
oxidation of organic matter and release of co2 through exposure of humus
to air in order to improve and deepen soil tilth, fertility, drainage, water 
holding capacity, cation exchange capacity, organic matter content and overall soil 
quality providing an improved, healthy medium for hosting beneficial microorganisms and 
other creatures that make garden soil their home. You remove much of the soil in the 
bed, add organic matter and mineral based soil amendments to it, homogenize these 
materials then return the amended, enriched soil mix to the bed. This is done in
increments of one (typical short (42" to 48") English D-handled *see 
below) digging spade blade width wide and one spade blade length deep for the width of
the bed (38-50" wide depending on the gardener's height).

You want highly mineralized soil, high in tilth and fertility, producing 
vegetables and fruits with exceptional flavor.
Add rock dust from quarries to your garden soil for trace minerals, 
microbe food and tilth, permanently eliminating soil
compaction. This is called siltation pond fines. It is so fine that if 
you put some in a glass of water it turns cloudy
and stays that way for quite a while before settling into a layer of 
sludge on the bottom; so fine it would take a microscope
to see the individual particles. This is great material to feed plants 
and soil microorganisms and invertebrates in your garden.
I think we are talking 200 mesh or finer; some fines are a little coarse 
by comparison to my basalt/volcanic tuff fines and some are an
aggregate with the largest component almost microscopic, like the talcum 
powder in pyrophylite fines (dredged from the quarry's siltation ponds).
To prevent compaction, permanently, fines act mechanically to interfere 
with clay and silt particles that when compressed when wet become highly
compacted when dried out - a serious problem for gardeners needing 
productive high-tilth soil.
I have used this material to enrich soil for the benefit of plants, 
microorganisms and invertebrates and to permanently
prevent any compaction of my soil that would significantly reduce the 
productivity of the gardens. The materials include
"siltation pond fines" from the following types of rock: granite, 
volcanic tuff (maybe basalt, very hard rock, 2nd hardest in NC)
and pyrophyllite screenings. I am glad to hear that granite, high in 
silica is a sink for lime making my soil acidic,
good for most crops, pH 6.1 to 6.6 or so. Tillage is expensive, 
disruptive of soil life and inconvenient when it needs to be done
and the soil is too wet; i.e. weeds can get out of control and go to 
seed when tillage can't be done, like in Spring, to remove them and
create a fine, weed free seedbed for new plantings. Fines are mixed with 
existing soil on site, sometimes in a 30 or 40 to 50 ratio.
The clay or silt particles become permanently separated from each other 
and cannot be seriously compacted again.
This effect is also achieved with the addition of compost or manures to 
the soil. The fines feed the microorganisms
that help break down the fines and make trace minerals available to 
plants; these microbes also break down any raw or composted organic matter
added to soil to become humus, feed released nutrients to crops and 
improve the soil crumb structure providing added tilth to your garden soil.
The extra trace minerals in garden soil makes crops taste much better. 
The famous tomatoes grown in volcanic soils in places in Italy taste so
good for this same reason. That's how fines relieve compaction and add 
to soil health and vitality, crop health and disease and predator
resistance and crop flavor, appearance and keeping qualities. More about 
fines dissolved in water. In places in the high country areas in
Eastern countries people drink cold river water that is cloudy and high 
in mineral content; they live long lives.

I would remove the top 8" or more of your raised bed-to-be. Then, "in 
situ" (without turning or inverting the soil layers) tilth
or dig up and pulverize an additional, lower 8-12" of subsoil; add 
amendments of all sorts to the 8" of soil you removed then put
it back in place on top of the subsoil layers you just tilthed - then 
you will have a "raised bed", the new garden bed surface will
now extend 4-8" above existing grade.

This will address any concern about your garden drying out during 
drought times if you use raised beds. The benefits outweigh the
disadvantages and with the following technique you will have no problems 
whatsoever.

Avoid having paths between the beds that are level with existing grade 
but ditches or furrows between the beds. These provide
much needed drainage and you can fill these ditches with mulch, weeds, 
hay, etc all the way up to the tops of your raised beds.

You want to to accomplish the objective of increasing depth of tilth and 
fertility in the soil in your beds. Mulching the top layer is
mandatory. Mulch will decompose leaving the seedbed fine and loose while 
leaching humus and compost tea into lower layers of garden soil
including sub soil areas to depths of several feet (partly because you 
have already tilled this zone). You want a permanent, notill,
biointensive raised bed that gets better each year through the action of 
compost tea, humus and nutrients that leach from the top layers
into the lower layers; that's a real "trickle-down bioeco-economy" with 
big pay back in quality produce for the table and for market.
This is real Pay Dirt as J.I. Rodale described it.

After this process is completed you need never again turn your soil,
except to a depth no greater than is necessary to control newly emerging
weeds, break crust and create a fine, loose seedbed. You now have
biointensive no-till, permanent raised beds.

This technology has been around for centuries and it works.
There is a very big net gain for soil, its inhabitants and the environment.

See John Jeavons books, Alan Chadwick's literature and lectures (links
on my website) and Aquatias' "Intensive Culture of Vegetables, French
System".

Double digging is as essential and indispensible to gardening anywhere
in the world, where the climate does not mandate other methods, as grain
is to bread.

* -> One of these spades:
Wooden D-handled digging spade:
28" length for most people, 32" for tall people or get the long straight
handled version, see below.




http://www.bulldogtools.co.uk/index.php?mod=3&id=7&rid=1

Long straight handled version:

http://www.bulldogtools.co.uk/index.php?mod=3&id=12&rid=1

This is the big dog on the block when it comes to traditional English
hand gardening tools; these were available at the beginning of the
modern organic gardening and farming movement in the 1960's:
Bulldog - Quality Garden, Contractor and Agricultural Tools
Rollins Bulldog Tools
"Bulldog Tools have been made at Clarington Forge in Wigan, England, for
over 200 years. Generations of Farmers, Contractors and Professional
Landscapers stand testimony to a quality of product upon which their
livelihoods depend. The skill and craftsmanship that were the key to the
company's success in those early days are still maintained and are
available to this day."

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For hand tools unavailable elsewhere in the USA see:

EARTH TOOLS, Inc.
Walk-Behind Tractors and Compatible Implements
hand tools for gardeners, homesteaders and farmers.
1525 Kays Branch Road
Owenton, KY 40359

http://earthtoolsbcs.com

(502) 484-3988 tel.
(502) 484-3357 fa

Indispensable tools from them include:

G30 - DeWit Seed Bed Rake
Made of forged steel, the 9 super-heavy duty tines are spaced nearly 2” 
apart - perfect for ripping up and raking organic material out of old 
seed beds without pulling all the soil out too. Straight neck allows you 
to flip over and use the back to flatten bed.
Head: 16.5" x 4"
Length: 74"
Weight: 4.4 lbs
Price: $59.00

53565 - SHW ‘Root’ Hoe
Heavier head for tougher chopping applications.
Head: 4.5" x 8.5"
Weight: 4.4 lbs
Length: 54"
Price: $43.00
Length: 75"
Price: $49.00

54306 - SHW Grape Hoe
The 'Big Mama' of hoes, available with your choice of two handle lengths 
(head shipped dis-mounted from handle)
Head: 9.5" x 7"
Weight: 5 lbs
Length: 54"
Price: $46.00
Length: 75"
Price: $50.00

Gulland Forge Broadfork
We are extremely pleased to have forged a partnership with Larry Cooper, owner of Gulland Forge, 
producer of this completely hand-made broadfork, which we feel is the finest on the market. 
The five forged tines have a 9" penetration depth and have a working width of 17.5".  
Supplied with custom-fitted ash handles and stainless steel bolts to hold them into the frame, 
the care that goes into making each fork is apparent.  
Both head and handles are coated with Linseed oil.
Overall Length: 57"
Overall Width: 21"
Tine Length: 9"
Tine Width: 17.5"
Weight: 15lbs
Price: $185.00

AUSTRIAN SCYTHES AND ACCESSORIES
================================

The Vidos (Kai, Peter, Alex and family); these folks wrote the book on traditional European scything:
They offer for sale an enormous array of Austrian scythes, snaths, sickles and accessories
and provide an encyclopedia of valuable information, links and reference material.
Scytheworks

http://www.scytheworks.ca/

Alexander Vido
71 Linden Avenue
Victoria, BC, V8V 4C9
Canada
phone: (250) 598-0588
scytheworks@shaw.ca
Scythe Connection

http://www.scytheconnection.com/

The Vido Family
1636 Kintore Road
Lower Kintore
New Brunswick, Canada
E7H 2L4
scythe@scytheconnection.com
phone: 506 273 3010 (a shack in the woods)
or 506 273 2977 ("office" on an adjacent property)
Both take messages and we check them daily. 

Scythe Supply
Carol Fishbein
An excellent company with very nice scythes  and lots of interesting, valuable information
and a lovely website. They have a very wide selection of scythe blades, some made in the 1970's,
and accessories

http://www.scythesupply.com/

Scythe Supply
496 Shore Road
Perry, ME 04667
Phone is (207) 853-4750
Email contact: http://scythesupply.com/emailUs.php

The One Scythe Revolution
Botan Anderson

http://www.onescytherevolution.com/

This is an excellent company offering traditional Austrian blades
and very fine Swiss snaths, whetstones, rakes, and other scythe accessories

Lehman's

http://www.lehmans.com/store/catalog?Args=

Farm Hand Tools

http://www.lehmans.com/store/Tools_Farm___Hand_Tools?Args=&view_all=&sort_by=

Lehman's, One Lehman Circle, P.O. Box 270, Kidron, OH 44636 USA • Ph: 888-438-5346
Hours: Mon - Sat 8:00a.m. - 5:30p.m. | Thur 8:00a.m.- 8:00p.m. | Closed Sun

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You will also need (all from Bulldog or Spear & Jackson or other 
manufacturer)
1) a D-handled garden spade (less angle between handle and blade)
2) a D-handled digging fork
3) a D-handled spade fork
All of these can be seen at the Bulldog site

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You will need an eye hoe, preferably the Japanese farmer hoe with
short handle and a few other tools, available from Hida Tool:
Hida Tool

http://www.hidatool.com/shop/shop.html

(this is the most useful eye hoe to get, the other is lighter in weight)
Kusakichi Brand #524 Farmer Hoe
item# blade length overall size price
N-7524 7inch x 5inch 41inch $49.20
This is an amazing tool, used to clean silt and OM from between beds to
put back on beds - ridge making hoe - or move dirt or make beds
Kusakichi Brand #553 Ridge Hoe
item# blade length overall size price
N-7553 15inch x 6inch 48inch $69.60
Kusakichi Brand #531 Farmer Rake
item# blade length overall size price
N-7531 8 5/8inch x 5 3/4inch 41 1/4inch $59.00
This is a three wide-tined hoe, great for weeding and tilthing,
disturbs soil structure less.

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Sneeboer tools are excellent. Great if you can find a source for them in
the USA. The tools to get from them are the variois sizes and
configurations of their SEEDING RAKES; they are indispensible!
They also have a great garden spade and an exceptional Dutch-style spade
fork, a one of a kind tool, as are the seeding rakes (you will find it
difficult to do without several sizes of this useful tool.
SNEEBOER & ZN

http://www.sneeboer.com/

Products

http://www.sneeboer.com/index2.php?page=19

(an amazing array of quality tools)
These are the seeding rakes:
-The best seeding rakes for preparing a seedbed for new plantings are
-the ones with 6 and 8 medium length tines - the others are less
-useful for this aplication.
Sloothark 4t
4 long tines & 185 cm length

http://www.sneeboer.com/index2.php?page=19&articleID=114

Klauw of Hark 8t
8 medium tines




http://www.sneeboer.com/index2.php?page=19&articleID=115

Klauw of Hark 6t
6 long tines
Tuinhark 8t
8 medium tines, 167 cm overall length

http://www.sneeboer.com/index2.php?page=19&articleID=117

Tuinhark 6t



6 medium tines 167 cm

http://www.sneeboer.com/index2.php?page=19&articleID=118

Tuinhark 5t



5 long tines 167 cm. length

http://www.sneeboer.com/index2.php?page=19&articleID=119

Tuinhark 4t
4 long tines







http://www.sneeboer.com/index2.php?page=19&articleID=120

Fijnhark 10 t



10 medium tines

http://www.sneeboer.com/index2.php?page=19&articleID=207

Amerikaanse Hark 10 t
American style rake
10 medium tines




http://www.sneeboer.com/index2.php?page=19&articleID=208


http://www.sneeboerusa.com/

Sneeboer USA
c/o Cole Gardens
430 Loudon Road
Concord, NH 03301
phone 603-229-0655
fax 603-229-0657
doug@sneeboerusa.com

Garden Rake, 4 prongs, fine toothed






Width : 5.2 in (13 cm)
Handle Length : 59 in. (150 cm)
Price : $83.00
Product Code : 6007

American Rake, 10 tined






Width : 12 X 3.1 in (42 X 8 cm)
Handle Length : 66.9 in. (170 cm)
Price : $118.00
Product Code : 6070

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http://hubpages.com/hub/HubMob-Topic-Of-The-Week-Green-Thumb-Hubbers-Landscaping--gardening-and-loving-your-yard_1




This company offers an amazing selection of good tools for biointensive
gardeners and double diggers, much to choose from:
WayCoolTools.com
# P.O.Box 235
White Hall, VA 22987
# 877-353-7783
# contact@waycooltools.com
# 434-823-4600

http://shop.waycooltools.com/category.sc?categoryId=3

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Here's more; this is good material from the BBC:

Gardening Guides
Digging your garden

http://www.bbc.co.uk/gardening/basics/techniques/soil_digging1.shtml

Double digging

Double digging is useful when drainage needs to be improved, or if the
ground has not been previously cultivated. This is a time-consuming
process but is worth the hard work and will result in good soil.

* The soil is worked to a depth of two spades, rather than one, and
it’s essential to keep the two layers of soil (subsoil and topsoil)
separate. In order to do this, the lower half of the trench can be dug
over in situ.
* Remove the soil from the upper and lower spits of the first
trench and from the upper spit of the second, placing it aside on the
ground in three separate, clearly marked piles.
* The soil can then be transferred from the lower spit of the
second trench to the base of the first trench, and from the upper spit
of the third trench to the top of the first. This ensures that the
topsoil and subsoil remain separate.
* Continue digging trenches in the same way, until you reach the
end of the bed where soil saved from the first trench can be used to
fill the appropriate layers in the final trench.
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And this great blog article with extensive links on double digging
using the Chadwick/Jeavons French Intensive biointensive method:
Double Digging

http://constructal.blogspot.com/2006/04/double-digging.html

"In 2004 we also volunteered at the Center for Sustainability to help
double dig some of their garden plots. Double digging is the first step
in the bio-intensive gardening technique, which we were unfamiliar with.
So I did a little bit of research on the technique and this year I am
going to try it on our garden plot. This technique was developed by Alan
Chadwick and furthered and promoted by John Jeavons of Ecology Action.
It aims at maximizing the yield from the available area AND maintain the
soil quality at the same time through sustainable organic methods of
gardening. The center for sustainability has a very good webpage about
this technique. Some other links I found are at the bottom of this post."
Center For Sustainability http://www.engr.psu.edu/cfs/
and there, on double digging:

http://www.engr.psu.edu/cfs/projects/biointensive.aspx

Ecology Action http://www.growbiointensive.org/biointensive/Ecology.html
See also Bountiful Gardens http://www.bountifulgardens.org/
Other links:

http://constructal.blogspot.com/2006/04/double-digging.html#Links

Biointensive Gardening Technique

http://www.engr.psu.edu/cfs/projects/biointensive.aspx

Bountiful Gardens

http://www.bountifulgardens.org/growbiointensive.html

Ecology Action Biointensive Gardening

http://www.growbiointensive.org/biointensive/GROW-BIOINTENSIVE.html

Books by John Jeavons

http://www.growbiointensive.org/biointensive/book.html

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Soil Quality resources, webforum archives, materials from various lists:
souscayrous' biological farming & permaculture collection
Hazelip, Bonfils and more

http://www.ibiblio.org/ecolandtech/souscayrous

Soils In Biological Agriculture

http://www.ibiblio.org/ecolandtech/permaculture/mailarchives/discussion-threads/soil-quality/

Remineralize the Earth

http://www.ibiblio.org/ecolandtech/orgfarm/remineralization/remineralization.selected-writings

Additional Soil Quality Links and Literature

http://www.ibiblio.org/ecolandtech/soil-links+lit.html

Compost Tea, Soil Foodweb, Soil Quality Discussion:
Archive 1

http://www.ibiblio.org/ecolandtech/SoilWiki/message-archives/composttea+soilfoodweb+soilquality/1/maillist.html

Archive 2

http://www.ibiblio.org/ecolandtech/SoilWiki/message-archives/composttea+soilfoodweb+soilquality/2/maillist.html

Archive 3

http://www.ibiblio.org/ecolandtech/SoilWiki/message-archives/composttea+soilfoodweb+soilquality/3/maillist.html

Archive 4

http://www.ibiblio.org/ecolandtech/SoilWiki/message-archives/composttea+soilfoodweb+soilquality/4/maillist.html

Archive 5

http://www.ibiblio.org/ecolandtech/SoilWiki/message-archives/composttea+soilfoodweb+soilquality/5/maillist.html

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Gardening Hand Tool Sourcelist
(needs revising)

http://www.ibiblio.org/ecolandtech/documents/gardening-hand-tools.faq

Soil and Health Library

http://www.soilandhealth.org/index.html

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Glomalin: Hiding Place for a Third of the World's Stored Soil Carbon

http://www.ars.usda.gov/is/AR/archive/sep02/soil0902.htm

Glomalin, extracted from
undisturbed Nebraska soil and
then freeze-dried.
(K9969-2)

A sticky protein seems to be the unsung hero of soil carbon storage.

Until its discovery in 1996 by ARS soil scientist Sara F. Wright, this
soil "super glue" was mistaken for an unidentifiable constituent of soil
organic matter. Rather, it permeates organic matter, binding it to silt,
sand, and clay particles. Not only does glomalin contain 30 to 40
percent carbon, but it also forms clumps of soil granules called
aggregates. These add structure to soil and keep other stored soil
carbon from escaping.

As a glycoprotein, glomalin stores carbon in both its protein and
carbohydrate (glucose or sugar) subunits. Wright, who is with the
Sustainable Agricultural Systems Laboratory in Beltsville, Maryland,
thinks the glomalin molecule is a clump of small glycoproteins with iron
and other ions attached. She found that glomalin contains from 1 to 9
percent tightly bound iron.
A microscopic view of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus: Click here for
full photo caption.
A microscopic view of an
arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus
growing on a corn root. The
round bodies are spores, and
the threadlike filaments are
hyphae. The substance coating
them is glomalin, revealed by
a green dye tagged to an
antibody against glomalin.
(K9968-1)

Glomalin is causing a complete reexamination of what makes up soil
organic matter. It is increasingly being included in studies of carbon
storage and soil quality. In fact, the U.S. Department of Energy, as
part of its interest in carbon storage as an offset to rising
atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) levels, partially funded a recent study
by lab technician Kristine A. Nichols, a colleague of Wright's. Nichols
reported on the study as part of her doctoral dissertation in soil
science at the University of Maryland.

That study showed that glomalin accounts for 27 percent of the carbon in
soil and is a major component of soil organic matter. Nichols, Wright,
and E. Kudjo Dzantor, a soil scientist at the University of
Maryland-College Park, found that glomalin weighs 2 to 24 times more
than humic acid, a product of decaying plants that up to now was thought
to be the main contributor to soil carbon. But humic acid contributes
only about 8 percent of the carbon. Another team recently used carbon
dating to estimate that glomalin lasts 7 to 42 years, depending on
conditions.

For the study, the scientists compared different chemical extraction
techniques using eight different soils from Colorado, Georgia, Maryland,
and Nebraska. They found that current assays greatly underestimate the
amount of glomalin present in soils. By comparing weights of extracted
organic matter fractions (glomalin, humic acid, fulvic acid, and
particulate organic matter), Nichols found four times more glomalin than
humic acid. She also found that the extraction method she and Wright use
underestimates glomalin in certain soils where it is more tightly bound
than usual.
Soil scientist examines a soil aggregate coated with glomalin: Click
here for full photo caption.
In her Beltsville laboratory,
soil scientist Sara Wright
examines a soil aggregate
coated with glomalin, a soil
protein she identified in 1996.
(K9972-1)

In a companion study, Nichols, Wright, and Dzantor teamed up with ARS
chemist Walter F. Schmidt to examine organic matter extracted from the
same soils under a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imager. They found
that glomalin's structure differs from that of humic acid—or any other
organic matter component—and has unique structural units.

In a current study in Costa Rica, partly funded by the National Science
Foundation, Wright is using glomalin levels and root growth to measure
the amount of carbon stored in soils beneath tropical forests. She is
finding lower levels of glomalin than expected and a much shorter
lifespan. "We think it's because of the higher temperatures and moisture
in tropical soils," she explains. These factors break down glomalin.

Forests, croplands, and grasslands around the world are thought to be
valuable for offsetting carbon dioxide emissions from industry and
vehicles. In fact, some private markets have already started offering
carbon credits for sale by owners of such land. Industry could buy the
credits as offsets for their emissions. The expectation is that these
credits would be traded just as pollution credits are currently traded
worldwide.
Soil scientist and technician examine extracted soil organic matter
constituents: Click here for full photo caption.
Soil scientist Sara Wright
(foreground) and technician
Kristine Nichols use nuclear
magnetic resonance to examine
the molecular structure of
extracted soil organic matter
constituents.
(K9971-1)

How Does Glomalin Work?

It is glomalin that gives soil its tilth—a subtle texture that enables
experienced farmers and gardeners to judge great soil by feeling the
smooth granules as they flow through their fingers.

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, found living on plant roots around the
world, appear to be the only producers of glomalin. Wright named
glomalin after Glomales, the taxonomic order that arbuscular mycorrhizal
fungi belong to. The fungi use carbon from the plant to grow and make
glomalin. In return, the fungi's hairlike filaments, called hyphae,
extend the reach of plant roots. Hyphae function as pipes to funnel more
water and nutrients—particularly phosphorus—to the plants.

"We've seen glomalin on the outside of the hyphae, and we believe this
is how the hyphae seal themselves so they can carry water and nutrients.
It may also be what gives them the rigidity they need to span the air
spaces between soil particles," says Wright.
Technician checks progress of corn plants: Click here for full photo
caption.
Technician Kristine Nichols
checks the progress of corn
plants growing in containers
specially designed for
glomalin production.
(K9973-1)

As a plant grows, the fungi move down the root and form new hyphae to
colonize the growing roots. When hyphae higher up on the roots stop
transporting nutrients, their protective glomalin sloughs off into the
soil. There it attaches to particles of minerals (sand, silt, and clay)
and organic matter, forming clumps. This type of soil structure is
stable enough to resist wind and water erosion, but porous enough to let
air, water, and roots move through it. It also harbors more beneficial
microbes, holds more water, and helps the soil surface resist crusting.

Scientists think hyphae have a lifespan of days to weeks. The much
longer lifespan of glomalin suggests that the current technique of
weighing hyphae samples to estimate fungal carbon storage grossly
underestimates the amount of soil carbon stored. In fact, Wright and
colleagues found that glomalin contributes much more nitrogen and carbon
to the soil than do hyphae or other soil microbes.

Two rows of dried soil samples: Click here for full photo caption.
Dried samples of undisturbed
soil (top row) and material
left after extractable organic
matter has been removed
(bottom row). Although minerals
are the most abundant components
of soil, organic matter gives
it life and health. Soil
samples from left to right
are from Maryland, Nebraska,
Georgia, and Colorado.
(K9974-1)

Rising CO2 Boosts Glomalin, Too

In an earlier study, Wright and scientists from the University of
California at Riverside and Stanford University showed that higher CO2
levels in the atmosphere stimulate the fungi to produce more glomalin.

They did a 3-year study on semiarid shrub land and a 6-year study on
grasslands in San Diego County, California, using outdoor chambers with
controlled CO2 levels. When CO2 reached 670 parts per million (ppm)—the
level predicted by mid to late century—hyphae grew three times as long
and produced five times as much glomalin as fungi on plants growing with
today's ambient level of 370 ppm.

Longer hyphae help plants reach more water and nutrients, which could
help plants face drought in a warmer climate. The increase in glomalin
production helps soil build defenses against degradation and erosion and
boosts its productivity.

Wright says all these benefits can also come from good tillage and soil
management techniques, instead of from higher atmospheric CO2.

"You're in the driver's seat when you use techniques proven to do the
same thing as the higher CO2 that might be causing global warming. You
can still raise glomalin levels, improve soil structure, and increase
carbon storage without the risks of the unknowns in global climate
change," she says.

Putting Glomalin to Work

Wright found that glomalin is very manageable. She is studying glomalin
levels under different farming and ranching practices. Levels were
maintained or raised by no-till, cover crops, reduced phosphorus inputs,
and the sparing use of crops that don't have arbuscular mycorrhizal
fungi on their roots. Those include members of the Brassicaceae family,
like cabbage and cauliflower, and the mustard family, like canola and
crambe.

"When you grow those crops, it's like a fallow period, because glomalin
production stops," says Wright. "You need to rotate them with crops that
have glomalin-producing fungi."

In a 4-year study at the Henry A. Wallace Beltsville (Maryland)
Agricultural Research Center, Wright found that glomalin levels rose
each year after no-till was started. No-till refers to a modern
conservation practice that uses equipment to plant seeds with no prior
plowing. This practice was developed to protect soil from erosion by
keeping fields covered with crop residue.

Glomalin went from 1.3 milligrams per gram of soil (mg/g) after the
first year to 1.7 mg/g after the third. A nearby field that was plowed
and planted each year had only 0.7 mg/g. In comparison, the soil under a
15-year-old buffer strip of grass had 2.7 mg/g.

Wright found glomalin levels up to 15 mg/g elsewhere in the Mid-Atlantic
region. But she found the highest levels—more than 100 mg/g—in Hawaiian
soils, with Japanese soils a close second. "We don't know why we found
the highest levels in Hawaii's tropical soils. We usually find lower
levels in other tropical areas, because it breaks down faster at higher
temperature and moisture levels," Wright says. "We can only guess that
the Hawaiian soils lack some organism that is breaking down glomalin in
other tropical soils—or that high soil levels of iron are protecting
glomalin."

It's Persistent and It's Everywhere!

The toughness of the molecule was one of the things that struck Wright
most in her discovery of glomalin. She says it's the reason glomalin
eluded scientific detection for so long.

"It requires an unusual effort to dislodge glomalin for study: a bath in
citrate combined with heating at 250 °F for at least an hour," Wright
says. "No other soil glue found to date required anything as drastic as
this."

"We've learned that the sodium hydroxide used to separate out humic acid
in soil misses most of the glomalin. So, most of it was thrown away with
the insoluble humus and minerals in soil," she says. "The little bit of
glomalin left in the humic acid was thought to be nothing more than
unknown foreign substances that contaminated the experiments."

Once Wright found a way to capture glomalin, her next big surprise was
how much of it there was in some soils and how widespread it was. She
tested samples of soils from around the world and found glomalin in all.

"Anything present in these amounts has to be considered in any studies
of plant-soil interactions," Wright says. "There may be implications
beyond the carbon storage and soil quality issues—such as whether the
large amounts of iron in glomalin mean that it could be protecting
plants from pathogens."

Her recent work with Nichols has shown that glomalin levels are even
higher in some soils than previously estimated.

"Glomalin is unique among soil components for its strength and
stability," Wright says. Other soil components that contain carbon and
nitrogen, as glomalin does, don't last very long. Microbes quickly break
them down into byproducts. And proteins from plants are degraded very
quickly in soil.

"We need to learn a lot more about this molecule, though, if we are to
manage glomalin wisely. Our next step is to identify the chemical makeup
of each of its parts, including the protein core, the sugar
carbohydrates, and the attached iron and other possible ions." Nichols
is starting to work on just that.

"Once we know what sugars and proteins are there," says Nichols, we will
use NMR and other techniques to create a three-dimensional image of the
molecule. We can then find the most likely sites to look for iron or
other attached ions.

"Researchers have studied organic matter for a long time and know its
benefits to soil. But we're just starting to learn which components of
organic matter are responsible for these benefits. That's the exciting
part of glomalin research. We've found a major component that we think
definitely has a strong role in the benefits attributed to organic
matter—things like soil stability, nutrient accessibility, and nutrient
cycling."

As carbon gets assigned a dollar value in a carbon commodity market, it
may give literal meaning to the expression that good soil is black gold.
And glomalin could be viewed as its golden seal.—By Don Comis,
Agricultural Research Service Information Staff.

This research is part of Soil Resource Management, an ARS National
Program (#202) described on the World Wide Web at

http://www.nps.ars.usda.gov.

Sara F. Wright and Kristine A. Nichols are with the USDA-ARS Sustainable
Agricultural Systems Laboratory, Bldg. 001, 10300 Baltimore Ave.,
Beltsville, MD 20705; phone (301) 504-8156 [Wright], (301) 504-6977
[Nichols], fax (301) 504-8370.

"Glomalin: Hiding Place for a Third of the World's Stored Soil Carbon"
was published in the September 2002 issue of Agricultural Research 
magazine.

\|/
 =  
/|\

Irish brush hook.

Bulldog Tools makes an Irish Brush Hook
You will have to get a printed catalog to see it

http://www.bulldogtools.co.uk/home.html

A Division of American Tool Companies
  Clarington Forge
  Wigan, Lancs. WN1 3DD
  UK
  Tel: (01942) 44281
  Fax: (01942) 824316

  BULLDOG TOOLS
  Division of Record Tools
  Parkway Works
  Kettlebridge Road
  Sheffield
  S9 3BL

  Telephone: 0114-2449066
  Fax: 01142-561788
  Tel: 01142-449066 Fax: 01142-434302
  e-mail:sales@recordtools.co.uk
  web:www.bulldogtools.co.uk
  Our Products
    All Season
    Bulldog
    Evergreen
    Premier

BULLDOG TOOLS have been made at Clarington Forge in Wigan for over 200 years.
Seven generations of Farmers, Contractors and Professional Landscapers stand 
testimony to a quality of product upon which their livelyhoods depended. The 
skill and craftsmanship that were the key to the company's success in those 
early days are still maintained and are available to you today, in the products 
you will find in this web site.
All products are fully guaranteed against faulty workmanship and material

Available from:
James Cooksons
Cheshire, UK
FREEPHONE, In UK: 0800 458 5752
FAX: +44 (161) 480 8579
(Maybe someone from the UK in the PC List could phone Cooksons and find out 
their overseas telephone number and post that to the list. Graham?)
cooksons.com ltd.
Armstrong House
Swallow Street
Stockport
Cheshire
SK1 3LG
United Kingdom
Cooksons carries all Bulldog tools and will do mail order to the USA

http://www.cooksons.com/store/browse.php3?section=14&level=2


http://www.cooksons.com

For more info and reviews of Bulldog Tool see:

http://www.fredshed.co.uk/tradesecrets.htm

Other sources for Bulldog Tools, Spear and Jackson Tools and more:

Peaceful Valley Farm Supply

http://www.groworganic.com


http://www.groworganic.com/a/a.html?sCategory=117

P.O. Box 2209, Grass Valley, CA 95945
Tel:(530) 272-4769  Order Toll Free (888) 784-1722
Email:contact@groworganic.com

Smith & Hawken 800/776-3336  800-9401170  http://www.smith-hawken.com

http://www.smithandhawken.com/jhtml/site/catalog/Category.jhtml;$sessionid$HN0UWGYAABLPNUPWC0SXBM4R4YLKY2G4?CATID=68&PARENTCATID=16

Gardener's Supply Co.  800/863-1700   http://www.gardeners.com

http://www.naturalgardening.com/cgi-bin/shop/S-Mart.cgi?command=listitems&type=group&pos=0&pg=tools&group=garden

See the Swwiss-made (60' handle X 6" head) 4-prong cultivator and the long 
handled spade and long-handled fork (Bulldog)
phone (707) 766-9303  FAX: (707) 766-9747

Order by mail: P.O. Box 750776, Petaluma, CA 94975-0776.
This is the article in Taunton's "Kitchen Garden" magazine
with a review of the Broadfork from Peaceful Valley Farm Supply
that I mentioned in an earlier post, also covers the old
Smith & Hawken 3-tine grub eyehoe which is now available in a modified
format from Hida Tool (http://www.hidatool.com - 800/443-5512) as their "Farmer 
Rake" also Bulldog spades and forks.

http://www.taunton.com/finegardening/pages/g00011.asp

For more articles in Kitchen Garden (no longer in print) see:

http://www.taunton.com/finegardening/pages/fg_feat_kitchgard.asp

Seeds of Change

http://www.seedsofchange.com/catalog/tool.html


http://shop.store.yahoo.com/seedsofchange/bulrectool.html

Record Tools North America (Canada, wholesale)

The Bulldog heavy-duty digging spade, spade fork and digging fork are three
basic tools for a raised bed gardener

> Then I'd take my brush scythe to the rest.

This is the best and most complete scythe dealer in the USA:
Scythe Supply

http://www.scythesupply.com/

they offer several types of brush and ditch scythes and well as the grass/grain 
types

> A Swede axe is good on small trees.

Gransfors is a brand that comes to mind though there are others, available from:

Garrett Wade or Lee Valley Tools

Also: Ralph Martindale & Co., Ltd.
Wonderful machetes, like you've never seen before - you can do an amazing lot of
clearing with a good machete: grasses, woody weeds, cornstalks, saplings, trees

http://www.ralphmartindale.co.uk/ralphmartindale/latinamerica1.html

See my Gardening Handtool Sourcelist: 
http://market-farming.com/gardening-hand-tools.faq for contact info
for RM, Ltd. - also Crocodile USA/www.karnaf.com, the Chillington/Ralph 
Martindale Ltd. USA Representative will import these tools for you;
Contact: Ilan Segura  ilan@karnaf.com   408-888-7478   Santa Clara, Calif.
Website: (these tools are in stock in their US warehouse:)

http://tools.karnaf.com/products.html

Importer of Ralph Martindale machetes and Chillington eye hoes, spades and forks

-
SNEEBOER TOOLS

http://www.sneeboer.com/

Fa. A. Sneeboer
De Tocht 3a
1611 HT Bovenkarspel
The Netherlands
tel. +31 (0)228 511 365
fax +31 (0)228 514 524
e-mail: info@sneeboer.com
Manufacturer of exclusive handforged garden tools in stainless steel.
Spades, planters, trenching and drainage tools, digging forks, tilthing forks, etc.
small hand tools, dibbles, rakes and more.

Other links to info on Sneeboer Tools:

http://www.kiel.dk/Sneeboer/omuk.html


http://www.madetolast.co.uk/s000012p0001.html


http://www.madetolast.co.uk/

Available in the U.S.A. from:

GARRETT WADE

http://www.garrettwade.com/

Garrett Wade Co., Inc.
161 Avenue of the Americas
New York NY 10013
By e-mail: mail@garrettwade.com 
Toll Free Telephone: 800 221 2942 (USA and Canada) 
Toll Free Fax: 800 566 9525 
International Telephone: 212 807 1155 
Garrett Wade carries a line of Sneeboer Tools
spades, one of the finest 4-tine digging spade forks ever made - T-handled long 
and short versions to a narrower 3-tine version, a large, heavy-duty tool for getting the 
job done, from tilthing a garden bed to turning it. See them at this URL:

http://www.garrettwade.com/jump.jsp?lGen=detail&itemID=105662&itemType=PRODUCT&iMainCat=10107&iSubCat=10108&iProductID=105662

"The 3-Tine Border Fork (6" wide) is somewhat lighter to use than the larger
4-Tine (9" wide). Both are 47" long. The Long Planting Spade is designed to
be wedged in the earth in one stroke - and is 43-1/2" long overall. The 5
small Hand Tools have handles of Cherry. These are exceptional,
commercial-quality garden tools - for those who want to use the best."
Other Sneeboer Tools at GW:

http://www.garrettwade.com/jump.jsp?lGen=detail&itemID=105527&itemType=PRODUCT&iMainCat=10107&iSubCat=10108&iProductID=105527

"The Large and the "Ladies" Digging Spades are 45 and 42-1/2" long overall
respectively with blades about 6" wide. The short and long Planting Spades
are 22" and 43-1/2" long overall. The "flat" pointed blades on these are
designed to be "wedged" in the earth in one stroke and to make a planting
pocket with one move of the handle. (Note: The Small size is used when
working on your knees.) These tools feature Ash hardwood handles."

And:

Boxhill Farm Nursery
Phone: 425.788.6473
E-mail: Boxhillfarm@mindspring.com
14175 Carnation-Duvall Road
Duvall, WA 98019
"Sneeboer Tools Hand crafted to perfection In the small town of Bovenkarspel, in the Westfrisian area of
Holland, three brothers Aad, Jaap and Frank make hand forged garden tools. Their grandfather Arie, founded
the company in 1913, and their father, Paul, continued it after the war. Much of the company remains
unchanged; the coal fire, an anvil, the hammering. What has changed are the customers; formerly market
gardeners, they are now private gardeners with a passion for their garden and good quality tools. As well as
the standard range of tools, the Sneeboer brothers can make tools to suit individual needs if required, from
hand tools to full sized garden tools. Always made from the best stainless steel and the finest wood, anyone
who has ever had a Sneeboer garden tool in his hand will never want to use anything else."
-

HARMONY FARM SUPPLY & NURSERY

http://www.harmonyfarm.com/

3244 Hwy. 116 North
Sebastopol, CA 95472 
(707) 823-9125 
FAX (707) 823-1734 
info@harmonyfarm.com 

LEE VALLEY TOOLS

http://www.leevalley.com/home/main.asp

Woodworking and gardening tools and hardware.
Garden tools:

http://www.leevalley.com/garden/index.asp?SID=&ccurrency=2

Lots of useful and well-made domestic and imported gardening hand tools;
See their product category listing. 
E-mail: From anywhere in the world: customerservice@leevalley.com 
Phone:
Customer Service: From USA: 1-800-267-8735
From Canada: 1-800-267-8761
From other countries: 1-613-596-0350

To Place an Order
From USA: 1-800-871-8158
From Canada: 1-800-267-8767
From other countries: 1-613-596-0350

Our telephones are staffed Monday to Friday from 7 am to 7 pm and from 9 am to 5
pm on Saturday (Eastern Time). We are closed on Sundays. Answering machines are
used outside these hours.
Fax:
From USA: 1-800-513-7885
From Canada: 1-800-668-1807
From other countries: 1-613-596-6030 

Our fax machines are on 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.
Letter Mail:
From USA:
From Canada and other countries:
Lee Valley Tools Ltd.
P.O. Box 1780
Ogdensburg, NY 13669-6780

Lee Valley Tools Ltd.
P.O. Box 6295, Station J
Ottawa, ON K2A 1T4 

<>-<>

European Scythes
----------------
Scythe Supply
Elliot Fishbein
496 Shore Road
Perry, Maine, 04667
(207) 853-4750

http://www.scythesupply.com

info@scythesupply.com

European scythes, blades, snaths, acccessories, information & scythe preparation
"Scythe Supply offers European style scythes, scythe
blades, snaths, whetstones, hammers, anvils and equipment."

Quality Scythe Supply (Turk's Head), Marugg, Schmeide, Redenbacher & Green River 
Tool blades; Marugg (curved & straight) & Green River Tool snaths; complete scythe 
systems; accessories: stones, anvils, hammers, sheaths, peening jigs, ring clamps & 
keys; standard & custom outfits, custom sizing; sharpening & repair; books; workshop, 
photo gallery & links; excellent website with much information on scythe use, 
maintenance and history.

<><><><>

Hida Tool & Hardware, Inc.
Phone: 510-524-3700 Toll-free: 1-800-443-5512
Email: hidatool@hidatool.com
1333 San Pablo Ave. Berkeley, CA 94702 

http://www.hidatool.com/


http://www.hidatool.com/gardenpage/hoes.html

Pix on the above page - get the Farmer Hoe and Farmer Rake;
there's also a Middle Farmer Hoe that's lighter  
Farmer Hoe  G-2002  $44.90     Farmer Rake  G-2001  $46.80

Lee Valley Tools:
From US:
Lee Valley Tools Ltd.
P.O. Box 1780
Ogdensburg, NY 13669-6780
From elsewhere:
Lee Valley Tools Ltd.
P.O. Box 6295, Station J
Ottawa, ON K2A 1T4
Customer Service:
customerservice@leevalley.com 
From USA: 1-800-267-8735
From Canada: 1-800-267-8761
From other countries: 1-613-596-0350
To Place an Order
From USA: 1-800-871-8158
From Canada: 1-800-267-8767
From other countries: 1-613-596-0350

http://www.leevalley.com/home/main.asp

Hoe page:

http://www.leevalley.com/garden/page.asp?page=44823&category=2&SID=&ccurrency=2

(pix on this page)
and order the Vineyard Hoe (pointed) 43" handle $16.95
and Italian-Style Hoe (square) 43" or 51" handles  $13.50

<><><><>

Garrett Wade
161 Avenue of the Americas
NY, NY 10013
1 800 221 2942

http://www.garettwade.com

Imported Dutch T-Handled Garden Forks:
3-tine long garden fork (6")
4-tine long digging fork (9") (very fine tool)
4-tine short planting fork (6")

Imported Dutch T-Handled Garden Spades:
Long planting spade
Short planting spade
Border shovel
Large digging shovel (very fine tool)

<><><><>

You can find three variants on the Japanese eye hoe (from S & H in past years) 
available in hardware stores and mail order:

A nice short-handled Portuguese-made eyehoe from Lee Valley Tools - 
two types of heads & less than $20 each - excellent quality cast steel head,  
well designed with a good heavy duty handle

Several eyehoes from Hida Tool Co., Japanese-made:
 -Farmer Hoe - like the old S&H but lighter duty - still a beautiful tool - 
same proportions on blade and with the usual slight tapering of blade thickness 
from edge to eye 
 -Farmer Rake - this is one of the most beautiful tools I have ever seen - 
heavy duty - three flat 1" wide, very long, tapered (in thickness) tines in a 
wide  configuration, heavy Japanese oak handle -  a lifetime tool to do real 
work with -  there is no other tool like it on the market today - its not a rake 
but is a digger/tilther/earth mover/weeder - a serious tool for the serious gardener
 -Ridge-Making Hoe - This, too, is a serious heavy-duty large hilling hoe for 
prepping  raised beds and rows and generally moving dirt. .

From:
Hida Tool and Hardware Co.

http://www.hidatool.com

hidatool@hidatool.com
1333 San Pablo Ave. Berkeley,  CA 94702 
510-524-3700  (telephone)     510-524-3423 (fax)    
9:00 to 5:00 (PT) Mon to Sat 
1-800-443-5512 (telephone)    1-888-524-7473(fax)
Hand tools
Japanese Woodworking tools
Handcrafted Japanese Garden & Bomsai Tools
(there's no pix of these tools & you'll probably have to call them to
get a price (about $45 each) Get the Hida Tool catalog to get the price sheet

The Ames or Seymour versions that are made in Austria - lots of
different head configurations, nicely made forged
but none as functional or heavy as the Japanese version - not pricey and 
available from AE  Leonard mail order and many hardware stores 

"MUTT" from Lowes or Home Depot, heat and bend the blade to make
it into a hoe; has a socket for a long handle - beautiful tapered blade, heavy, 
long --  has lots of potential - comes in two versions:
long/narrow, short/wide - all have 1/4" steel or better - heat treat and 
temper it for better edge-holding and weed/turf slicing

<><><><>

From: rick valley <bamboogrove@cmug.com>:

Marugg Co. 
for scythes 
<Marugg@BLomand.Net> 

and 

Hida Tool Co. 
for Japanese gardening, carpentry and bamboo working tools 
1-800-443-5512

They're a fine outfit, excellent service & the best quality - 
Japanese tools come in a huge range of quality.

Hida is the Co. I get the Ebinata from, a hatchet-type
tool I wrote up for the Activist once- great for mulching up trees.

Another fine company is Bellota, out of the Basque country in Spain- I have a
10yr-old catalog and one eye hoe, beautifully forged of incredible steel-
double-ended, a three-inch chisel & two 5/8 inch prongs on the other.
They also manufacture in Venezuela.
Bellota: 
Tel. 34-43-730-000. Fax 34-43-733-524.
Expect Spanish, but they'd probably love it if you spoke Basque.

ARS saws and pruners are also favorites of mine; a wholesale source of them
and more, that'll lead you to a retail source is Barnel: (800) 877-9907 or
<info@barnel.com> 

Rick Valley, 
Rick Valley Northern Groves 
PO Box 1236, Philomath, OR 97370 
Mobile-(541)602-1315, hm.& msg. (541)929-7152  
Bamboo catalog $2 or at <http://www.teleport.com/~dbrooks/bamboo.html>
"Useful Bamboos and other plants - Permaculture education - Ecological design
& consultation centering on water, landform and horticultural systems"
-

Broadforks or U-Bar Diggers:
----------------------------

Eliot Coleman's design sold by Johnny's Selected Seeds as
"Johnny's Broadfork". $109.00. Description (edited) from Johnny's website:
"Eliot Coleman design, Maine made. A remarkably light but strong 24" 
wide steel fork base with 10 1/2" long tines and 50" oiled ash handles.

http://www.johnnyseeds.com/cgi-local/Minishopsql4.cgi?action=page&adver=other&partnumber=9677

(in the picture on the website it looks like it may have 5 or 6 tines)

<>

Peaceful Valley Farm Supply offers a very heavy steel
alloy/non-rusting, tig-welded model which was written 
up in Taunton Press'  "Kitchen Gardener" in an article about the
author's favorite tools. PVFS calls this tool the "Deep Spader".
The four pointed tines are 16" long; tool width is 18". The tine section 
is bolted to to the long handle made of 1" pipe. The Deep Spader weighs
30 pounds and costs $139.00.

Peaceful Valley Farm Supply
Toll free: 1-888-784-1722
PO BOx 2209
Grass Valley, Calif., 95945
530-272-4769

<>

A.M. Leonard catalogue has a great cast broad fork for around $80.00
delivered.  It is great for digging through compost, straw, etc; very 
well made and a dream to use (800) 543-8955.

<><><><>

Burgon & Ball Ltd

http://www.burgonandball.com/html/home.htm

Sales & Marketing Office
Burgon & Ball Ltd
Sir Peter Thompson House
Market Close
Poole Dorset
BH15 1NE
England
Specialist manufacturers of agricultural & garden hand tools since 1730!
for mail order sales call - 0114 233 8262 alternatively fax - 0114 285 2518
for trade sales call - 01202 684 141 alternatively fax - 01202 684 242
Sheep care tools, shears, pruners, scythes, knives, billhooks, scythe stones,
silage and hay knives, topiary shears

<><><><>
-
The Chillington Tool Company
011 44 1902 826826 Telephone (for USA access; this translates from: +44 (0) 1902 826826)
Mr. Lawrence Askey (laskey@ralphmartindale.com)
A Ralph Martindale Group Company
crocodile@chillington.co.uk 

http://www.chillington.co.uk/chillington.html

Crocodile USA (Chillington's USA Branch)

http://www.crocodileusa.com/

info@crocodileusa.com
<>
The Ralph Martindale Group of Companies

http://www.ralphmartindale.co.uk/

E-mail: Crocodile@RalphMartindale.co.uk
Ralph Martindale (Birmingham) Ltd
Telephone: +44 (0) 1902 826826  Fax: +44 (0) 1902 826827   
Crocodile House, Strawberry Lane, Willenhall, West Midlands WV13 3RS, England
-
Ralph Martindale & Co., Ltd.

http://www.ralphmartindale.co.uk/ralphmartindale/

Web: www.ralphmartindale.co.uk    E-mail: crocodile@ralphmartindale.co.uk
Matchets Agricultural Hand Tools
Cane Knives   Survival Knives
Sharpening Files & Saws   Knives & Files
Digging/Construction Tools    Sickles
Sheaths     Gardening Tools 
From their website:
"The genuine "Crocodile" blade is made from hot rolled high quality British Steel by our own Mill. 
The strip is tapered in section to optimise the unique cutting characteristics with the weight of 
the tool. Each face of the blade has three grooves which assist the blade's removal from sapwood. 
The grooves extend to the tang of the blade to form a mechanical lock with the handle.
Our product is therefore lightweight and easy to use. The blade is roll forged to give an 
outstandingly well balanced tool to meet the arduous demands of rural farmers throughout the 
tropical regions of the world. Only "Crocodile" brand machets are made from tapered steel section 
with grooves which makes our product distinctly better than our competitors. Quality is assured 
because we control every stage of production from steel billet to finished machet.
Every blade is individually tested to ensure the hardened and tempered steel characteristics 
conform to our strict quality controls. We guarantee 100% inspection.
All our handles are made from German beech wood. We monitor the moisture content of the timber 
to make sure the product is consistent and does not split under normal circumstances.
The timber is cross-sawn for maximum strength and stability. The handle is fitted to the blade 
with solid steel rivets and washers. A special factory fitting technique is employed which has 
been perfected from 125 years experience to ensure our product is the best value for money 
and outlasts the life of other brands."
-
The Chillington Tool Company
A Ralph Martindale Group Company

http://www.chillington.co.uk/chillington.html

Web: www.chillington.co.uk   E-mail: crocodile@chillington.co.uk
From their website:
"The Chillington Tool Company has been supplying the agricultural and construction 
industries with quality hot forged Hoes and Forks for over one hundred years. 
Using high carbon British steel, Chillington sets the highest standard for quality 
worldwide. Chillington manufactures a large selection of patterns in a wide range of 
sizes. Chillington Hoes and Forks are sold throughout the world under a number of 
different brand names, the most famous being the "Crocodile". All Chillington products 
are recognised as the hallmark of quality, durability and reliability."
<>
Crocodile USA 
Highest Quality hot forged Hoes and Forks
Tel: (408) 330-9222
Fax: (408)-330-9221
457 Mathew St.
Santa Clara, CA 95050, USA
info@crocodileusa.com

http://www.crocodileusa.com

For a complete display of tools available see:

http://www.crocodileusa.com/brochure.html

See also:

http://www.chillington.co.uk/chillington.html


http://www.chillington.co.uk/latinamerica.html


http://www.chillington.co.uk/northafrica.html


http://www.chillington.co.uk/asia.html


http://www.chillington.co.uk/srilanka.html

-
(old contact information:)
The Chillington Tool Co.Ltd.,
Bridge Road, Haywards Heath,
West Sussex, RH16 1UA, UK.
Phone :  + 1444 417 220  Fax :  + 1444 457 662

"The prices seem pretty reasonable, and they do Mail Order.
They're a set of tools where the blade is set at a right 
angle to the handle - used like a mattock, and very versatile, 
as you can dig, cut through roots, hoe etc.
Whenever you see farm workers in the Developing World on TV, 
they're using this type of tool," 

<><><><>

BELLOTA
Spain

http://www.bellota.com


http://www.bellota.com/catnaveg.jsp?idGrupo=51&idMarca=1

(Possibly out of date contact information:)
Tel. 34-43-730-000. Fax 34-43-733-524
For AGRICULTURE-GARDEN:
agricultural handles, garden, hoes & forks, machetes, prunning range, sickles & scythes
See a complete display of Forks and Hoes at:

http://www.bellota.com/catnaveg.jsp?idGrupo=486&idMarca=1

Sickles and Scythes here:

http://www.bellota.com/catnaveg.jsp?idGrupo=487&idMarca=1

Machetes here:

http://www.bellota.com/catnaveg.jsp?idGrupo=262&idMarca=1

Agricultural handles here:

http://www.bellota.com/catnaveg.jsp?idGrupo=505&idMarca=1

Contact:
CPE
UN Norte America
Corona Clipper, Inc.
Tel. +1 909 7376515
Fax. +1 909 7378657
mkt@corona.bellota.com

http://www.bellota.com/i_contact.jsp#

CORONA CLIPPER, INC
A Bellota Company

http://www.coronaclipper.com/

Corona Clipper, 1540 East Sixth Street, Corona, California 92879
Phone: General Office: (909) 737-6515, Toll Free Sales Office: (800) 847-7863,
Toll Free Customer Service: (800) 234-2547, Fax: (909) 737-8657
mkt@corona.bellota.com
Human resources
rrhh@corona.bellota.com 

<><><><>

Tata Steel

http://www.tatasteel.com/agrico/aboutus.htm

From their website:
TATA Agrico, a division of Tata Steel is the pioneer manufacturer of superior 
quality agricultural implements in the country. Since 1925, it has been the 
leading manufacturer of Shovels, Powrahs, Crowbars, Kudalies, Pickaxe and Hammers. 
These implements cater to the needs of Agricultural, Horticulture Industry, 
Maintenance of Roads, Dams, Railway- Tracks, Collieries, etc., in India and abroad.
See this page for an amazing display of eye hoes:

http://www.tatasteel.com/agrico/products.htm

<><><><>

WOONG CHUEN  IND. CO., LTD.
Address: 
HEAD OFFICE
Seobong Bldg., 72, Samjeon-dong, Songpa-ku, Seoul,
138-180 
Korea (South)     
FACTORY 
"Farm & Garden Tool" IN CHINA 
Phone: 82-2-419-8940 
Fax: 82-2-419-5542 
Contact: President / Dan Lee. 
E-mail: woongchuen@woongchuen.com 

http://www.woongchuen.com

See this page for an impressive display of hoes, shovels, forks and other farm and garden tools:

http://www.woongchuen.com/product.htm

<><><><>

PANZERI TOOLS s.n.c.
ITALY
panzeri.tools@iol.it

http://www.panzeri-tools.it/

PANZERI TOOLS s.n.c.
via Luigi e Pietro Pozzoni n.16              
24034 Cisano Bergamasco ITALY
Tel. +39 035 787016 Fax +39 035 787555
Costruzioni Attrezzi Agricoli da Giardino e Forestali       
Manufacturing Agricultural Tools  Forestry Tools  Gardening Tools  Hand tools forged

<><><><>

Agricultural Hand Tools
MICROCER  - KANJIZA - Exprt-Import trading company
Voice contact is on hungarian and serb languages. Fax and other (E-mail) send on European languages.
ADDRESS:
D.O.O. MICROCER
Strosmajer  22.
24420 Kanizsa
Yugoslavia
E-MAIL:
office@microcer.co.yu
Telefon:
(+381) 024 873-435
Fax:
(+381) 024 874-435 

http://www.microcer.co.yu


http://www.microcer.co.yu/mezgaz/mezgaze.html


http://www.microcer.co.yu/indexe.html

<><><><>

Okapi Knives
Cane, Bush and Assorted Agricultural Knives

http://www.okapi-knives.com/

<><><><>

The Striking Tools Company

http://www.strikingtools.net/shovel3.html

Gardening and agricultural hand tools
C - 1/19, Safdarjang Development Area
New Delhi -110016
INDIA
Tel
+91-11-3715431/3722159
Fax
+91-11-3715096
E-Mail
info@strikingtools.net

<><><><>

Interesting picture of handmade hoes, froes and adzes



<><><><>

Japanese gardening tools:
-
Japanese KAMA scythes are of high-quality steel 
and come in a size to suit every need. Their knives
(splitting bamboo etc) are excellent. 
For more information contact Matsumoto-san, 
a permaculture activist in Japan with good contacts with many local
factories that make high quality tools, often by hand. His address is:

Noboru Matsumoto
402 Shiyona-Zho
Kasugai-Shi
Aichi, Japan. 
Catherine Pawasarat (asaka@gol.com) should know his email address
-

Seeds of Change
Bulldog Garden Tools 
(made in England at factory in Wigan, sold under the Record name)
Seeds of Change®
PO Box 15700
Santa Fe NM 87506
1-888-762-7333
Email address:
gardener@seedsofchange.com

http://st4.yahoo.com/seedsofchange/bulrectool.html

Bountiful Gardens
1999 Main Catalog

http://www.bountifulgardens.org/bgmain.htm

-- Biointensive and organic --
garden seed and supplies
Garden tools and supplies:

http://www.bountifulgardens.org/toolmain.htm

Spear & Jackson digging tools (D-handles fork & spade,
other English & oriental tools 
Bill and Betsy Bruneau, Managers
Bountiful Gardens 18001 Shafer Ranch Road, Willits, CA 95490-9626 USA
voice/fax 707-459-6410
Email: bountiful@zapcom.net
(C) Copyright 1999, Ecology Action of the Midpeninsula, Inc. dba Bountiful Gardens.

Garden Tools of Maine

http://members.aol.com/gtmaine

RR2, Box 2208, Holden, Maine 04429
Phone: 888 271 2672 Fax: 888 271 2674
Email: gtmaine@aol.com 
-
Hortus Ornamenti

http://www.greenwich.co.uk/hortus/index.htm

"Fine Gardening Tools
Hortus Ornamenti prides itself on producing some of the finest quality 
hand made gardening tools and accessories available today. The designs 
are inspired by those of bygone eras, these are ideal gifts for 
the discerning gardener."

Address:
Hortus Ornamenti
23 Cleveland Road
Chichester
West Sussex
PO19 2HF
United Kingdom

Telephone/Fax:
+44(0)1243 782467

Email to fax:
remote-printer.Hortus_Ornamenti@7.6.4.2.8.7.3.4.2.1.4.4.tpc.int 
-
Lee Valley & Veritas

http://www.leevalley.com

"If you have ideas for new tools (either gardening or woodworking), 
or other recommendations, we would like to hear from you. 
You can reach us by mail at these addresses: 
USA & International

We serve USA and international customers by mail order. Packages can be
shipped by UPS ground to anywhere in continental USA. Packages to Alaska and
Hawaii are shipped by UPS air. 

Lee Valley Tools Ltd.
Mail Order Center
12 East River Street 
P.O. Box 1780, Ogdensburg, N.Y. 13669-6780 
USA 

Canada 
We serve Canada by mail order and through our retail stores. See our store
location maps for the store nearest you. 

Lee Valley Tools Ltd.
Mail Order Center
1090 Morrison Drive 
P.O. Box 6295, Stn. J, Ottawa, Ontario K2A 1T4 
Canada 

or by telephone at these numbers: 
USA
1-800-267-8735
Canada
1-800-267-8761
International
1-613-596-0350
or e-mail us at customerservice@leevalley.com
-
A. M. Leonard

http://www.amleo.com

Sales: (sales@amleo.com)
Customer: Service (custserv@amleo.com)
General Information: (info@amleo.com)
To order call toll free number 24 hours a day at (800) 543-8955.
Customer Service/Technical Assistance call 8:00am - 5:00pm EST at (800) 543-8955.
Fax: 24 hours a day, toll free, at (800) 433-0633

A. M. Leonard, Inc.
241 Fox Drive
Piqua, Ohio 45356-0816

Tree maintenance and nursery equipment, miscellaneous gardening/landscaping 
tools/supplies, eye hoes, scythes
-													 
Smith & Hawken												 

http://www.smith-hawken.com


http://st3.yahoo.com/smithandhawken

"Tools of the Trade - A Complete Source For the Organic Gardener"
Orders:
2 Arbor Lane, Box 6900
Florence, Kentucky, 41022-6900
1-800-776-3336
Customer Service: 1-800-776-5558
General info:
25 Corte Madera 
Mill Valley, California, 94941
1-415-383-2000

Also excellent! you may need to ask them what tools they
have for sale that are not listed in their catalogue,
held-over stock offered in out-of-date ones -
i.e. the 4"X7" Japanese field hoe (grub-type eye hoe using 1 3/4" X 54" 
handle) they used to offer, an indispensible tool!
They now offer English Bulldog brand eye hoes; also a complete line of
digging forks, digging spades, spade forks, border forks and border spades
and straight snath scythe systems.
=
=
Smith & Hawken and A.M. Leonard sell a scythe system with a straight 
wooden snath (lightweight, strong & easy to use) and an Austrian lightweight 
grass & grain blade that is thin, long and can easily be sharpened. 
This tool is perfect for cutting lawns. It _can_ remove weeds/grass right 
down to the ground. It's fairly easy to maintain the proper stance and swinging 
motion to cut your grass to a consistant height and in regular arcs that blend 
together evenly. A wonderful tool, indespensible for the rural dweller and suburban 
gardener alike. Smith & Hawken sells a straight two-handled model while
AM Leonard sells a slightly curved one with one handle (you grip the top of the 
handle with your other hand). It is possible that S & H no longer carries their 
model, but if they get enough requests for it that might offer it again.
=
=
Gardex

http://www.gardexindia.com

"Gardex offers the widest and most comprehensive range of agro/garden tools from 
India. We can develop any model as per your requirement"
- Marketing Office:
808, Antriksh Bhawan
22, Kasturba Ghandhi Marg
New Delhi - 110001 (India)
Tel. : (91 - 11) 3715431, 3722159 
Fax. : (91 - 11) 3715096
E- Mail : sarat@gardexindia.com
- Corporate Office:
C- 7 Focal Point
Jalandhar - 144 004 (India)
Tel. : (91 - 181) 290889, 293890, 293891
Fax. : (91 - 181) 290562, 225581,
E- Mail : corporate@gardexindia.com
-
Peaceful Valley Farm Supply

http://www.groworganic.com

Tel: (530) 272-4769        
Fax: (530) 272-4794 
OFFICE HOURS:  Monday - Saturday 8:30 a.m. - 5:00 p.m. PST 
PEACEFUL VALLEY FARM SUPPLY
P.O. Box 2209
Grass Valley, CA 95945
Spear & Jackson Tools + many other useful brands
-
Walt Nicke
1-978-887-3388
Walte Nicke's Gardentalk
A Catalog of Fine Tools for Gardeners

http://www.gardentalk.com

<><><><>

This sourcelist contains new information on mail ordering English-made 
Bulldog (Record-Bulldog) garden tools from companies in the USA. 
Until recently there has not been a source for them here; 
for those not familiar with Bulldog, they are lifetime quality tools
traditionally hand-forged, highly functional, strong and durable.
-
James Cooksons (Stockport) Ltd.
Cheshire, U.K.

http://www.cooksons.com

Spear & Jackson, Bulldog (Record/Bulldog) and other brands of high-quality 
traditional English hand garden tools. Many different types of spades, 
forks, hoes and other implements. Contact them for a catalog - they do mail 
order sales to USA (no duty, no VAT, depending on where you live you may 
only pay state use tax).
-
Seeds of Change
P.O. Box 15700
3209 Richards Lane 
Santa Fe, New Mexico, 87506
1-888-762-7333
505-438-6529
gardener@seedsofchange,com
Retail mail order sales of English Record/Bulldog garden tools:
heavy duty digging fork and digging spade and many others 
-
The Kinsman Co.
Kinsman Garden Company, Inc.
River Road
P.O. Box 357
Point Pleasant, Pennsylvania, 18950
1-800-733-4146, 215-297-0890 (local) info & orders
Fax: 215-297-0450
215-297-5613 wholesale 
Website: http://kinsmangarden.com
Email: kinsmangarden@bux.com
Retail mail order sales of English Record/Bulldog garden tools
Kinsman carries  a half dozen or so of the more popular English Bulldog 
tools under the Record name (Record now owns the Bulldog garden tool line).
They have their own catalog with these and many other garden items listed:
digging spade, border spade, digging fork, border fork, poachers spade
(rabbiting tool - good for planting or transplanting), hand fork & trowel
-
Record Tool North American Distributor 
Record Tools, Inc.
1920 Clements Rd.
Pickering, Ontario, Canada, L1W-3V6
(Canada #) 905-428-1077
(USA #) 716-842-1180
Record Tools, Inc. provides wholesale and retail outlets with a very 
wide array of Record/Bulldog garden tools. Call or write them for their 
garden tool catalog.

<><><><>

-
Miscellaneous phone numbers:
Gardener's Supply Co. (800-863-1700)
A.M. Leonard (800-543-8955
Smith & Hawken (800-981-9888) 
Langenbach (800-362-4410)
Kinsman Co. (800-733-4146)
Walt Nicke's Garden Talk (508-887-3388)
Harmony Farm Supply (707-823-9125) 
Peaceful Valley Farm Supply (916-272-4769) 
-
Request a catalog from:
Johnny's Selected Seeds
Foss Hill Road
Albion, Maine, 04910
Customer service: 1-207-437-4301 
They supply EARTHWAY and PLANET, Jr. seeders and will, on request
give you information on suppliers of other seeders (i.e. a small hand-carried
corn/bean seeder. You may want to hybridyze the EW and the P, Jr.
when planting small seeds in rough terrain. An organic vegetable grower
in North Carolina has successfully done this.

http://www.johnnyseeds.com

-
Whole Earth "Ecolog" mentioned five tool suppliers for farm and garden
supplies; my hunch would be try 
Lehman's Hardware and Appliances,
Their catalog is $2.00 from:
PO Box 41, 4779 Kidron Rd., 
Kidron OH 44636
-
The Cook's Garden
"Seeds and Supplies for the New American Kitchen Garden"
P.O. Box 535
Londonderry, Vermont, 05148
802-824-3400
Fax: 802-824-3027

Offers the Korean "HO-MI" hand cultivator (curved trowel/cultivator),
well-designed and effective
-
Necessary Trading Co.
One Nature's Way
New Castle, Virginia, 24127-0305
FAX - 703/864-5186
Phone: 1-703-864-5103
"Natural Solutions for Farm, Home and Garden"
Wide range of supplies, books, fertilizers, tools and equipment -
catalogue headings include: books, composting equipment & supplies,
soil testing equipment & supplies, cover crop seeds, fertilizers
(their largest offering), pest management supplies and equipment,
wild bird supplies, animal care supplies and miscellaneous hand tools.
A major supplier, along with Zook & Ranck and Fertrell, for organic 
farmers and market growers in the Eastern U.S.  
-
Snow & Nealley
Axes & Mauls, Gardening and Woodworking Tools

http://www.sntools.com/contact.htm

Order Desk Hours, 8:00am - 5:00pm Monday - Friday Eastern Time.
Telephone: 
(800)-933-6642 
FAX: 
(207) 941-0857 
Postal address: 
P.O. Box 876, Bangor, ME 04402-0876 
Electronic mail: 
General Information, Sales, & Customer Service: info@sntools.com 
-
Garden & Landscaping Connection at Where-AT (tm) website

http://www.where-at.com/your_home/gardening.htm

Lots of gardening links
-
Hand & Garden Tool Connection at Where-AT (tm) website

http://www.where-at.com/your_home/tools.htm

LOTS of links to all sorts of tool and equipment manufacturers & dealers
-
HARMONY FARM SUPPLY     
P.O. Box 451 
Graton, CA 95444
- 
Cumberland General Store 
Catalog $3.00 from:
Rt. 3 box 81, 
Crossville TN 38555
615-484-8481.
-
Mellinger's
2310 W. South Range Road
North Lima, OH 44452-9731                   
216-549-9861
Offerings: seeds, woody plants, perennials, tropical
plants, tools, growing supplies
-
Forestry Suppliers, Inc.
P.O. Box 8397
205 West Rankin St.
Jackson, Mississippi, 39204
"Quality Forestry, Engineering and 
 Environmental Equipment, Shipped Worldwide"
tools, equipment and supplies for the forestry industry
-
Langenbach
P.O. Box 453
Blairstown, N.J., 07825
Toll Free: 1-800-362-1991
-
Ben Meadows Company
Equipment for Natural Resource Managers
3589 Broad Street
Atlanta, Georgia, 30341
1-800-241-6401
Fax: 1-800-628-2068
Mail Order address:
P.O. Box 80549
Chamblee, Georgia, 30366
e-mail: mail@benmeadows.com
http://www.benmeadows.com (great Web page!)
See pages 132-139 for garden handtools information;
see esp. page 134: Adze Hoe & Pic'N Planter tools
-
Shepherd's Garden Seeds
Shipping Office
30 Irene St.
Torrington, Connecticut, 06790
860-482-3638
-
You might also call the folks at ATTRA (Appropriate Technology for Rural
Areas) at 1-800-346-9140. They might have some other names & addresses for you.
-
P.A. Bonvallet's Sons Inc.
R.R. 1 Box 160
St. Anne, IL 60964                          
815-427-8222
Offerings: pots, containers, soil conditioners, fertilizers
Comments: wholesale distributor
-       
W. Atlee Burpee & Co.
300 Park Ave.
Warminster, PA 18991-0001                   
Offerings: seeds, perennials, bulbs, woody plants, supplies
Comments: separate seasonal catalogs are available
-      
Dayton Bag and Burlap
210 Dowdle St., Unit 5
Algonquin, IL 60102                         
708-658-8488       Fax: 708-658-4197
Offerings: nursery supplies
Comments: wholesale distributor
-       
 Dramm Corporation
    2000 North 18th Street
    PO Box 1960
    Manitowoc, WI  54221-1960  USA

    920-684-0227 Voice
    920-684-4499 Fax
    800-258-0848 Toll Free USA

    webiste:  http://www.dramm.com
    email:      garden@dramm.com

 Dramm Products can be ordered on line at..

http://www.gardengift.com

    gardengift.com
    619 South 26th Sreet
    Manitowoc, WI 54220-3707  USA

    email:      service@gardengift.com

Offerings: irrigation equipment
-    
Earl May Seed Company
208 North Elm Street
Shanandoah, IA 51603-0099                  
712-246-1020
Offerings: woody plants, seeds, perennials, growing supplies
-
Garden's Alive
Hwy. 48, P.O. Box 149
Sunman, IN 47041                            
812-623-3800
Offerings: tools, equipment, IPM supplies, beneficial insects
-
Gardener's Supply
128 Intervale Rd.
Burlington, VT 05401                        
802-863-1700
Offerings: tools, equipment, IPM supplies
-       
Gempler's
P.O. Box 270, 211 Blue Mound Rd.
Mount Horeb, WI 53572   
800-328-8473       Fax: 800-551-1128
Offerings: agricultural supplies, protective equipment
-      
Grower's Supply Company
P.O. Box 1123
Ann Arbor, MI 48106                        
313-662-6058
Offerings: indoor stands, lights and trays
-       
Henry Field's Heritage Gardens
1 Meadow Ridge Rd.
Shenandoah, IA 51601-0700                   
605-665-5188
Offerings: woody plants, perennials, tools, supplies
-       
Innis Violets
8 Maddison Lane
Lynnfield, MA 01904                         
617-334-6679
Offerings: African violet growing supplies, high dome terrariums
-       
J. W. Jung Seed Co.
335 S. High Street
Rondolf, WI 53956                           
Offerings: seeds, woody plants, perennials, tools, supplies
-       
Midwest Trading
P.O. Box 384
St. Charles, IL 60174                       
708-742-1840       Fax: 708-888-3818
Offerings: horticultural supplies, equipment, tools, and structures.
Comments: wholesale catalog
-       
Park Seed Company
Cokesbury Road
Greennwood, SC 29647-0001                  
Offerings: seeds, bulbs, perennials, growing supplies
Comments: separate seasonal catalogs offered
-       
Ringer
9959 Valley View Road
Eden Prairie, MN 55344-3585                 
800-654-1047       Fax: 612-941-5036
Offerings: tools, equipment, growing supplies, IPM supplies
Comments: offers a range of organic lawn and garden products
-      
Wayside Gardens
1 Garden Lane
Hodges, SC 29695-0001                       
800-845-1124
Offerings: perennials, woody plants, growing supplies
Comments: illustrated catalog
-       
Wingert Pottery
1185 Atlantic Dr.
West Chicago, IL 60185                     
708-293-9097       Fax: 708-293-9114
Offerings: clay pots, garden ornaments
Comments: an extensive selection of clay pots, wholesale
and retail, a division of Ceramo Company, Inc.
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One Response to Gardening Hand Tool Sourcelist & Raised Garden Bed Preparation

  1. Ben Lannoy says:

    Some good reference links there. I run a garden design business near chichester at http://www.benlannoy.com and have had dealings with seeds of change. They were exceptionally good to deal with so will keep this info for furture reference!

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